Apache



Using Perl LWP::UserAgent to View Server Headers

Unless configured to do otherwise, most HTTP and FTP servers will supply you with identifying information in the form of a server header. Using Perl's LWP::UserAgent, you can connect to a server and display the header information.

First, you'll need LWP::UserAgent. You can install this using Perl's CPAN repositories:

sudo perl -MCPAN -e 'install LWP::UserAgent'

After LWP::UserAgent is installed, you can use Perl to connect to the server and download the information. Here is an example script which takes one argument and displays the information:

#!/bin/env perl
 
use warnings;           # keep us warned
use strict;             # keep us honest
use LWP::UserAgent;     # for web requests
 
my $url;                # init url var
my $serverheader;       # init server header var
 
# require one argument
if ($#ARGV != 0) {
 
    printf("Usage: %s <URL>\n", $0);
    exit(1);
 
} else { $url = $ARGV[0]; }
 
# build connection properties
my $ua = LWP::UserAgent->new();
$ua->timeout(10);
$ua->agent('Mozilla/5.0');
 
# connect and get
my $response = $ua->get($url);
 
# if we can connect...
if ($response->is_success) {
 
    # grab server header
    $serverheader = $response->server;
 
    # if server header exists...
    if (defined($serverheader)) {
 
        # print server header
        printf("%s\n", $response->server);
 
    # else, print a message
    } else { printf("No server header available.\n"); }
 
# else, print connection status
} else { printf("%s\n", $response->status_line); }
 
exit(0);

Assuming that the code is saved as getinfo.pl and executable (chmod +x), you can use it to fetch interesting information from various HTTP and FTP servers.

bash$ ./getinfo.pl http://www.apache.org
Apache/2.3.15-dev (Unix) mod_ssl/2.3.15-dev OpenSSL/1.0.0c
 
bash$ ./getinfo.pl ftp://apache.mirrors.pair.com
apache.mirrors.pair.com NcFTPd Server (licensed copy)

Of course, some sites do not publish HTTP headers (but most do).

bash$ ./getinfo.pl http://www.facebook.com
No server header available.

Finally, the code will show you if there is an error:

bash$ ./getinfo.pl http://badurl
500 Can't connect to badurl:80 (Bad hostname 'badurl')

Compile Apache on Fedora

Below is a walk-through for compiling Apache 2.2 on Fedora 9. First, download and unpack the source tarball from Apache.org. As of August 2008, the latest version of Apache is 2.2.9 (httpd-2.2.9.tar.gz)

tar -xzvf httpd-2.2.9.tar.gz
cd httpd-2.2.9

Next, configure the source for build. You can provide configure with --help to see the large list of options. The example below enables mod_rewrite, mod_cache, mod_mem_cache and mod_ssl as shared modules in /opt/apache2/modules. Change --prefix to adjust your install PREFIX and adjust the configure options to suit your needs.

./configure --prefix=/opt/apache2 --enable-rewrite=shared --enable-cache=shared --enable-mem-cache=shared --enable-module=so

Now, build and install Apache.

make
sudo make install

Your Apache configuration will be in /opt/apache2/conf and you can control Apache with /opt/apache2/bin/apachectl. Refer to the Apache documentation for more details.

Compile PHP on Fedora

Below is an outline on how to compile a feature rich, PHP Apache module on Fedora 9. First, compile Apache on the system using these instructions. This document assumes that Apache and the APache eXtenSion Tool are installed in the PREFIX: /opt/apache2.

Once you have Apache prepared, download the PHP source from php.net. As of August, 2008 the latest version is PHP 5.2.6. So, the following examples will use the php-5.2.6.tar.gz source tarball. Use your browser to download the latest and greatest. Then, untar the source.

tar -xzvf php-5.2.6.tar.gz
cd php-5.2.6

Next, configure the source for compile. Use the configure command. You can provide --help to see the large list of options.

./configure --help

For every option you enable, make sure you have the necessary RPMs installed to build PHP. For example, if you run configure with --with-snmp, you will need the net-snmp-devel RPM installed to complete the build. To ensure that you can build PHP with a full suite of options, install the following RPMs. Trim the list to suit your needs.

yum install aspell-devel curl-devel cyrus-sasl-devel e2fsprogs-devel freetype-devel glibc-devel keyutils-libs-devel krb5-devel libgcc libidn-devel libjpeg-devel libpng-devel libselinux-devel libsepol-devel libstdc++-devel libX11-devel libXau-devel libXdmcp-devel libxml2-devel libXpm-devel mysql-devel net-snmp-devel openldap-devel openssl-devel tcp_wrappers zlib-devel

Then, configure with the following settings. Change the configure --prefix to adjust your install PREFIX. Again, trim the list to suit your needs.

./configure --prefix=/opt/php5 --with-apxs2=/opt/apache2/apxs --with-mysql=/usr/bin/mysql_config --with-mysqli=/usr/bin/mysql_config --with-png-dir=/usr --with-gd --enable-gd-native-ttf --with-ttf --enable-safe-mode --enable-magic-quotes --with-pspell --with-gettext --with-jpeg-dir=/usr --with-zlib --with-curl --enable-soap --with-ldap=/usr --enable-sockets --with-openssl --with-snmp --enable-mbstring --with-freetype-dir=/usr --with-xpm-dir=/usr --with-libdir=lib64

Please note that if you are on a 32bit system, remove:

--with-libdir=lib64

Finally, build PHP and test it.

make
make test

If you are comfortable with the results (a few errors are OK in make test), then install PHP.

sudo make install

The install will place the PHP module in /opt/apache2/modules and prepare /opt/apache2/conf/httpd.conf with these settings:

LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so

Then, place a php.ini in /opt/php5/lib (or your PREFIX/lib).

cp -a php.init-recommended /opt/php5/lib/php.ini

Finally, prepare your Apache Virtual Host to support index.php with the following code:

AddType application/x-httpd-php .php .inc .class
AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps
DirectoryIndex index.html index.php

Refer to PHP.net and Apache.org for reference.

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